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The Theory Of Contract In Its Social Light
From the Introduction.
There is no branch of legal knowledge which is of more general utility, than that which regards the rules of evidence. The first point in every trial, is to establish the facts of the case; for he who fails in his proof, fails in everything. Although the jurists hold the law to be always fixed and certain, yet the discovery of the fact, they say, may deceive the most skillful. No work has as yet appeared in the English language on the theory of evidence; and the nature of circumstantial evidence has been still less inquired into. The object of the present Essay is to inquire into some of the more general principles of legal proof, and particularly into that species of proof which is founded on presumptions, and is known to the English lawyer by the name of circumstantial evidence.
Evidence and proof are often confounded, as implying the same idea; but they differ, as cause and effect. Proof is the legal credence which the law gives to any statement, by witnesses or writings; evidence is the legal process by which that proof is made. Hence, we say, that the law admits of no proof but such as is made agreeably to its own principles.
The principles of evidence are founded on our observations on human conduct, on common life, and living manners: they are not just because they are rules of law; but they are rules of law because they are just and reasonable.
It has been found, from common observation, that certain circumstances warrant certain presumptions. Thus, that a mother shall feel an affection for her child,-that a man shall be influenced by his interest,-that youth shall be susceptible of the passion of love,-are laws of our general nature, and grounds of evidence in every country. Of the two women who contended for their right to the child, she was declared to be the mother who would not consent to its being divided betwixt them. When Lothario tells us that he stole alone, at night, into the chamber of his mistress," hot with the Tuscan grape, and high in blood!"Ctera quis nescit?
As the principles of evidence are founded on the observations of what we have seen, or believed to have been passing in real life, they will accordingly be suited to the state of the society in which we live, or to the manners and habits of the times. The following passage, in the excellent memoirs of Philip de Comines, I believe to be perfectly true, because it is confirmed by other accounts of the general state of manners at the period when he wrote.
Louis XL distributed, he asserts, for corrupt purposes, sixteen thousand crowns among the King of England's officers that were about his person, particularly to the chancellor, the master of the rolls, the lord chancellor, &c. .
Theory Of Light Hydrogenic Bound States
Light one-electron atoms are a classical subject of quantum physics. The very discovery and further progress of quantum mechanics is intimately connected to the explanation of the main features of hydrogen energy levels. Each step in the development of quantum physics led to a better understanding of the bound state physics. The Bohr quantization rules of the old quantum theory were created in order to explain the existence of the stable discrete energy levels. The nonrelativistic quantum mechanics of Heisenberg and Schr] odinger provided a self-consistent scheme for description of bound states. The re- tivistic spin one half Dirac equation quantitatively described the main - perimental features of the hydrogen spectrum. Discovery of the Lamb shift , a subtle discrepancy between the predictions of the Dirac equation and the experimental data, triggered development of modern relativistic quantum electrodynamics, and subsequently the Standard Model of modern physics. Despite its long and rich history the theory of atomic bound states is still very much alive today. New importance to the bound state physics was given by the development of quantum chromodynamics, the modern theory of strong interactions. It was realized that all hadrons, once thought to be the elementary building blocks of matter, are themselves atom-like bound states of elementary quarks bound by the color forces."
The Lie & The Light
Buried in the soul of fallen man is a lie that has corrupted all matters of heart and mind. It infected the first man with a virus of self-obsession, and the disease passed from generation to generation as Adam's kind filled the earth. This lie is not merely a false belief. It is the ancient lens through which man believes all things. It is the twisted mirror into which we look to understand our lives. As such, it cannot be corrected or improved, but must find its end in the Cross of the Lord Jesus Christ. And in our souls, this Lie must be displaced by the Person who said "I am the Light".
Ninety Seconds Recycled
Eighty broadcast Thoughts for the Day with a Christian slant
Lights In A Dark Place
Colombia has been known as a land of violence - Colombian people have reacted to the Gospel of Jesus Christ by cursing the messengers, beating them, kidnapping them, killing them and burning down their houses. But from those burnings have shot out sparks and flames and laser beams of light, as the Gospel has continued to shine forth in the midst of darkness. God has delivered people from burning houses. God has healed the ones who cursed. God has even rescued kidnappers. Read fourteen true stories of the Light of the World shining in the land of Colombia, South America.